Category: OpenSUSE

Plasma, Applications, Frameworks arrive in Latest Tumbleweed Snapshot

Since last week, there have been four openSUSE Tumbleweed snapshots released and the snapshots brought new versions of software from KDE, Mozilla and more.

The most recent snapshot, 20191014, updated several packages around KDE’s projects. Plasma 5.17.0 arrived in the snapshot and there are some extraordinary changes to the new version. The release announcement says this new version is as lightweight and thrifty with resources as ever before. The start-up scripts were converted from a slower Bash to a faster C++ and now run asynchronously, which means it can run several tasks simultaneously, instead of having to run them one after another. Improvements to the widget editing User Experience were made and the Night Color feature became available, which subtly changes the hue and brightness of the elements on the screen when it gets dark; this diminishes glare and makes it more relaxing to the eyes. The same snapshot brought KDE Applications 19.08.2 and the second version of the 19.08 release improved High-DPI support in Konsole and other applications; there were many bugs fixes as well and KMail can once again save messages directly to remote folders. There was more KDE packages arriving in Tumbleweed with the update of KDE Frameworks 5.63.0; KIO, Kirigami and KTextEditor had the most bug fixes in frameworks latest release. The Tumbleweed snapshot had several other software packages updated like the file system utilities package e2fsprogs 1.45.4, which addressed Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures CVE-2019-5094 where an attacker would have been able to corrupt a ext4 partition. The 3.6.10 version of gnutls added support for deterministic Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) / Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA). Text editor Nano updated to version 4.5 and offers a new ‘tabgives’ command allowing users to specify per syntax whatthe key should produce. The php7 7.3.10 version modified some patches and fixed some bugs. With all these changes, the snapshot is trending at a stable rating of 95, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

The 20191012 snapshot had one package update and it was for Linux Kernel 5.3.5. The single kernel update appears to have increased the stability of Tumbleweed as it is trending at a stable rating of 96, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer. That’s four rating points up from the snapshot the day before, 20191011, which is trending at a stable rating of 92.

Snapshot 20191011 had updates for ImageMagick 7.0.8.68 that now supports animated WebP encoding/decoding. Both Moxilla Firefox and Thunderbird were updated to version 69.0.2 and 68.1.1 respectively. Firefox had a single fix for a Linux-only crash when changing the playback speed while watching YouTube videos. Thunderbird on the other hand had multiple bug fixes to include various theme fixes and dark theme improvements for the calendar. The fwupd package, which is a daemon to allow session software to update firmware,  version 1.3.1 now allows the disabling of all plugins and added support for thunderbolt interface for kernel safety checks. GStreamer and many of its plugins were updated to version 1.16.1; the new versions offer many performance improvements and fixed a Wayland event source burning CPU in certain circumstances. Other packages updated in the snapshot were nodejs12 12.11.1, python-packaging 19.2 and tcpdump 4.9.3, which addressed more than two dozen CVEs.

Snapshot 20191009 recorded a moderate rating of 90 on the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer had 10 packages updated in the snapshot. Ultra fast download utility aria2 1.35.0 dropped SSLv3.0 and TLSv1.0 and add TLSv1.3. The wicked framework version 0.6.60 shipped the internal helper library, libwicked, inside of the wicked package and the Linux Kernel sources were updated from version 5.3.2 to 5.3.4.

openSUSE to have Summit in Dublin

openSUSE to have Summit in Dublin

openSUSE to have Summit in Dublin 1The openSUSE Community is going to Ireland March 27 and 28, 2020, for openSUSE Summit Dublin.

Registration for the summit has begun and the Call for Papers is open until Feb. 14.

The summit will begin at the end of SUSE’s premier annual global technical conference SUSECON.

Partners of openSUSE, open-source community projects and community members are encouraged to register for the summit and submit a talk.

The schedule for the openSUSE Summit Dublin will be posted on Feb. 17.

There is an openSUSE and open source track. There are three talks that can be submitted for the summit. One is a short talk with a 15-minute limit;a normal talk with a with a 30-minute limit and a long talk with a 45-minute limit.

Attendees of SUSECON are welcome to attend and submit talks. openSUSE Summit Dublin is a free community event that will take place on the last day of SUSECON and the Saturday that follows SUSECON.

Contact ddemaio (@) opensuse.org if you have any questions concerning the summit.

Sixth openSUSE.Asia Summit Concludes

Sixth openSUSE.Asia Summit Concludes

Sixth openSUSE.Asia Summit Concludes 2The openSUSE community concluded its sixth openSUSE.Asia Summit this weekend at the Fakultas Teknik of the Universitas Udayana in Bali, Indonesia.

Bali’s newest tourist attraction, the Garuda Wisnu Kencana status, towered outside the window as participants discussed all things openSUSE and open source.

A number of participants traveled from all over the world to join students from the university. The students volunteered with running the summit and many made their first contributions to open source. Attendees from more than 20 nations attended the summit. Talks at the summit focused on open source technologies, community contributions, healthcare technologies like GNU Health, packaging, using the Open Build Service and much more.

Simon Lee and Dr. Axel Braun from the openSUSE Board provided attendees with a status update about the openSUSE Project and introduced Gerald Pfeifer as the new chairperson for openSUSE. GNOME‘s Executive Director Neil McGovern gave a keynote at the summit; the GNOME.Asia Summit will be next week in East Java, which is the island next to where the openSUSE.Asia Summit took place.

The organizers from the opensuse.id community put together a fantastic summit for the participants had several social events to collaborate on topics related to the project and expansion of the project and open source technologies within Asia. The project and attendees expressed their thanks to sponsors who helped to maked the summit a success. SUSE, Simplify8, Radiant Utama Interinsco TBKMyCoop, PT Boer Technology, Excellent, Bogorwebhost, Linksys, Fans.co.id

The openSUSE.Asia Summit started a tradition at the first openSUSE.Asia Summit of passing along the Summit’s photo album; the organizing team from the previous year passes the Summit’s photo album to the organizers who are completing the current Summit. Max Huang passed the album to Kukuh Syafaat during the ceremonial end of the summit.

That wasn’t the only ceremony. The conference started off with a ceremonial dance and opening remarks from the university’s staff.

Next year’s openSUSE.Asia Summit is planned to take place in Faridabad, India.

Election Committee Set to Open Vote on Project Name

Election Committee Set to Open Vote on Project Name

Election Committee Set to Open Vote on Project Name 3Following discussions about the “openSUSE Project logo & name change” that started in June on the openSUSE Project mailing list [1], the Election Committee received a request from the Board to conduct a vote whereby openSUSE members can indicate whether they are for or against the project name change.

The voting will start on Oct. 10 and end on Oct. 31, which will provide three weeks for members to vote. The result will be announced on Nov. 1.

The voting exercise is limited to openSUSE members only.

The voting procedure will be similar to the board elections. Members will receive a voting link on their membership email alias, i.e @opensuse.org. Members should verify that their openSUSE email alias is working and redirecting to the correct email address. If you experience troubles with your email alias, please email admin@opensuse.org to resolve the issue.

Members who wish to change the target address of their email alias can do so by creating a ticket. That can be done by sending the change request to admin@opensuse.org.

Those who wish to become an openSUSE member they can apply for membership by following the instructions specified on the openSUSE Wiki page [2].

The Election Committee can be reached through election-officials@opensuse.org.

[1] https://lists.opensuse.org/opensuse-project/2019-06/

[2] https://en.opensuse.org/openSUSE:Members

Co-Conference Logo Competition for 2020

Co-Conference Logo Competition for 2020

Co-Conference Logo Competition for 2020 4Co-Conference Logo Competition for 2020 5The LibreOffice and openSUSE communities will have a joint conference next year in Nuremberg, Germany, and for this special co-conference, we are having a logo competition. The dates of the event are still being finalized, but there are some things we can do beforehand.

A logo is essential for the conference and we want to visualize both communities during this co-conference as LibreOffice will celebrate its 10-year anniversary and openSUSE will celebrate its 15-year anniversary during the conference.

The LibOcon logo should not be confused with the LibreOffice 10th anniversary logo contest, which will be announced separately via the LibreOffice blog.

You have seen both the openSUSE Conference logo and LibOcon logo change over the years. For this unique co-conference, we would like to have a unique logo reflecting both communities in one logo.

The competition is open now and ends on January, 17, 2020. The organizing team will send “Mystery Box” as an appreciation for the best logo designed. This year, logo will be voted on by the organizers of the conference.

Deadline: 17 January 2020 UTC 13:00

Announcement Winner: 1 Feb. 2020 at FOSDEM

The Rules of the Contest are as follows:

  • The logo should be licensed under CC-BY-SA 4.0 and allow everyone to use the logo without attribution (BY) if your work is used as the logo of LibOcon/oSC20. Note that the attribution is going to be shown on the conference website.
  • Design must be original and should not include any third party materials.
  • Both monochromes and color formats are essential for submission.
  • Submissions must be in SVG format.
  • Design should reflect the LibreOffice and openSUSE communities.
  • The logo should avoid the following things:
    • Brand names or trademarks of any kind.
    • Illustrations that may consider inappropriate, offensive, hateful, tortuous, defamatory, slanderous or libelous.
    • Sexually explicit or provocative images.
    • Violence or weapons.
    • Alcohol, tobacco, or drug use imagery.
    • Discrimination based on race, gender, religion, nationality, disability, sexual orientation or age.
    • Bigotry, racism, hatred or harm against groups or individuals
    • Religious, political, or nationalist imagery.
  • The logo should follow the “LibreOffice Branding Guidelines” and the “openSUSE Project Trademark Guidelines” published respectively at https://wiki.documentfoundation.org/Marketing/Branding and https://en.opensuse.org/File:OpenSUSE_Trademark_Guidelines.pdf
  • The branding guidelines will be helpful to design your logo (optional)
    https://opensuse.github.io/branding-guidelines/

Please submit your design to ddemaio@opensuse.org with the following entries:

  • Subject: Co-Conference Logo Design 2020  – [your name]
  • Your name and mail address to contact
  • A document about philosophy of the design (txt or pdf)
  • Vector file of the design with SVG format ONLY.
  • Bitmap of design in attachment — image size: 256*256 px at least, PNG format.
  • File size less than 512 KB.

The co-conference organizing team will decide on the logos, which is subject to the conditions that the logo meets all the requirements. The final decision will be made by the co-conference organizing team and it may not be the highest scored design.

We recommend the artist to use Inkscape, a powerful, free and open source vector graphics tool for all kinds of design.

Tumbleweed Snapshots Trending High with Bash, PulseAudio, Curl Updates

Tumbleweed Snapshots Trending High with Bash, PulseAudio, Curl Updates

Tumbleweed Snapshots Trending High with Bash, PulseAudio, Curl Updates 6Three openSUSE Tumbleweed snapshots released this week brought about two dozen new versions of software.

The snapshots brought one new major version update for pulseaudio and an updated version of bash.

The major version update to pulseaudio 13.0 came in Snapshot 20190921. The sound server program improved the initial card profile selection for Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) cards and improved the play 5.1 surround audio that now treats both “side” or “rear” channels identically when the user has a 5.1 speaker setup; the 7.1 setup still has a difference which channel pair gets used. The libreoffice 6.3.2.2 package had some stability tweaks and addressed two Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE), which one had an unsafe URL assembly flaw. The cabextract program that un-archives files in the Microsoft cabinet file format modernized the spec file in its 1.9.1 version. Another package updated in the snapshot was osinfo-db, which is a package that provides a database of information about operating systems for virtualization provisioning tools. The snapshot is trending at a stable rating of 95, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

The 20190920 snapshot is also trending at a stable rating of 95. This snapshot updated bash from version 5.0 to 5.0.11. The minor update to bash change posix mode behavior. The Mesa 3D graphics library 19.1.7. The update fixed a KWin compositor crashes on launch as well as a few other bugs. Command line tool and library curl 7.66.0 added experimental feature for HTTP/3 that is disabled by default but can be enabled and works, according to this tutorial from Daniel Stenberg. Two CVEs were also fixed with the curl update. The 26.3 version of the emacs text editors has a newly assigned codepoint U+32FF that was added to the Unicode Character Database compiled into Emacs, which now supports the new Japanese Era name. Software development tool swig 4.0.1 added Python 3.8 support and fixed some minor regressions that were introduced in the 4.0.0 major release. An updated version of plymouth added a time delay of 8 seconds to fit an AMD graphics card for graphical boot animation.

The snapshot that started off the week, 20190918, brought an update for Mozilla Thunderbird. The mail clients 68.1.0 squashed bugs like a car speeding on the autobahn on a muggy day; A total of six CVEs were addressed in the update including CVE-2019-11739, which allowed for a Covert Content Attack on S/MIME encryption using a crafted multipart/alternative message. File searching utility catfish 1.4.10 added some new features and improved the application menu to make better use of space, padding, and margins. The snapshot is recorded a moderately stable rating of 90, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

Firefox, Graphene, Krita update in Tumbleweed

Firefox, Graphene, Krita update in Tumbleweed

Two openSUSE Tumbleweed snapshots were released this week.

Firefox, Graphene, Krita update in Tumbleweed 7The snapshots furnished the update for KDE Applications 19.08.1 and updated several libraries including Intel’s Graphene library OS.

Snapshot 20190917 delivered four packages. The Graphene package updated to 1.10.0 and now uses an ancillary library called (micro) µTest for its test suite, which makes possible to build and run the test suite without depending on GLib. Mozilla Firefox 69.0 provided Enhanced Tracking Protection (ETP) with stronger privacy protections and added support for receiving multiple video codecs to makes it easier for WebRTC conferencing services to mix video from different clients. The other two package updates in the snapshot were icecream 1.3, which takes compile jobs from a build and distributes it among remote machines allowing a parallel build, and the HTTP client/server library for GNOME libsoup 2.66.3. The update of  icecream 1.3 improved the speed of creating compiler tarballs. The snapshot is trending at a moderately stable rating of 87, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

The 20190916 snapshot finished the updates of KDE Applications 19.08.1, which were in the previous week’s snapshots. The 5.2.14 version of the Linux Kernel had some fixes for Ceph buffers and Advanced Linux Sound Architecture. The graphics editor written in Qt, Krita 4.2.6 had several fixes and added a new layer from visible to layer right-click context menu. Among the most key libraries updated in the snapshot were an update to glib2 2.60.7, which fixed more than a handful of bugs; libvirt 5.7.0, which added apparmor-abstractions as a required package for daemon; and gtk3 3.24.11, which added Wayland support for xdg-output v3 and has improved the monitoring of metadata with X11. The User Interface manager for GTK, amtk updated it’s first five series minor release to 5.0.1 that fixed a small new compilation warning. Rendering engine webkit2gtk3 2.26.0 added support for HSTS (HTTP Strict Transport Security). The only major release to come in the snapshot was perl-HTML-Clean  1.2 from version 0.9. Other notable packages updated in the snapshot were flatpak-builder 1.0.8, texinfo 6.6 and virtualbox 6.0.12 that fixed a potential crash when using the medium Input/Output functionality of VBoxManage. The snapshot is trending at a moderately stable rating of 80, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

Applications, PostgreSQL, Zypper Packages Update in Tumbleweed

Applications, PostgreSQL, Zypper Packages Update in Tumbleweed

The past week produced four openSUSE Tumbleweed snapshots. Applications, PostgreSQL, Zypper Packages Update in Tumbleweed 8

The snapshots brought an update of KDE Plasma and Applications along with an update for the input framework ibus, two PostgreSQL versions and the command line package manager zypper.

KDE Applications 19.08.1 improvements to Kontact, Dolphin, Kdenlive, Konsole, Step, and more arrived in snapshot 20190909. Several regressions in Konsole’s tab handling were fixed and olphin again starts correctly when in split-view mode. The updated of the anti-virus package clamav 0.101.4 address two Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures. The GNOME web browser package epiphany 3.32.5 fixed a memory corruption and broken web process extension connection when using WebKit trunk. An update of links 2.20.1 brought stability improvements and also addressed a bug when connected with tor would send real dns requests outside the tor network when the displayed page contains link elements with rel=dns-prefetch. The Plasma desktop received a minor update to 5.16.5 and fixed KWayland-integration builds with recent frameworks and Qt 5.13. Some notifications were changed in the new minor version and the some functionality was improved for current weather conditions. The qrencode 4.0.2 package improved support for cmake. The snapshot was trending at a rating of 84, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

Multiple packages arrived in snapshot 20190907, which was also trending at a rating of 84. An update of ImageMagick 7.0.8.63 properly identifies the DNG and AI image format. About 15 CVE’s were addressed in the update of Mozilla Firefox to version 68.1.0, which included a fix for type confusion in Mozilla’s JavaScript engine Spidermonkey. An update for the Wayland input-method protocol was made in ibus 1.5.21 and improved Single Instruction, Multiple Data (SIMD) decoding of 24 bit files was made with the Free Lossless Audio Codec (flac) 1.3.3 package update. Improved performance of various Application Program Interface (API) such as JSON.parse and methods called on frozen arrays were made with the nodejs12 12.10.0 update and php7 7.3.9 provided a bug fixing release that fixed an Exchangeable image file format (Exif) crash (bus error) due to wrong alignment and invalid cast. Many other libraries were updated in the snapshot including a couple YaST packages.

More than half a dozen packages were updated in the 20190905 snapshot. Among the most notable packages in the snapshot were kdevelop5 5.4.2 and iproute2 5.2, which Use FAT link-time optimization (LTO) objects in order to provide proper static library. The mozilla-nss 3.45 added support for the Elbrus lcc compiler in the snapshot and both postgresql10 10.10 and postgresql11 11.5 were updated. The snapshot recorded a moderately stable rating of 83, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

The snapshot that started off the week, 20190904, provided an update to libktorrent 2.1.1 that fixed HTTP seeding and libgnome-games-support 1.4.4, libusb-1_0 1.0.23, webkit2gtk3 2.24.4 and yast2 4.2.19 were all updated. The command line package manager zypper also updated in the snapshot to version 1.14.30, which dumps stack trace on broken pipe SIGPIPE. The snapshot recorded a stable rating of 93, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

Applications, PostgreSQL, Zypper Packages Update in Tumbleweed

Applications, PostgreSQL, Zypper Packages Update in Tumbleweed

The past week produced four openSUSE Tumbleweed snapshots. Applications, PostgreSQL, Zypper Packages Update in Tumbleweed 9

The snapshots brought an update of KDE Plasma and Applications along with an update for the input framework ibus, two PostgreSQL versions and the command line package manager zypper.

KDE Applications 19.08.1 improvements to Kontact, Dolphin, Kdenlive, Konsole, Step, and more arrived in snapshot 20190909. Several regressions in Konsole’s tab handling were fixed and olphin again starts correctly when in split-view mode. The updated of the anti-virus package clamav 0.101.4 address two Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures. The GNOME web browser package epiphany 3.32.5 fixed a memory corruption and broken web process extension connection when using WebKit trunk. An update of links 2.20.1 brought stability improvements and also addressed a bug when connected with tor would send real dns requests outside the tor network when the displayed page contains link elements with rel=dns-prefetch. The Plasma desktop received a minor update to 5.16.5 and fixed KWayland-integration builds with recent frameworks and Qt 5.13. Some notifications were changed in the new minor version and the some functionality was improved for current weather conditions. The qrencode 4.0.2 package improved support for cmake. The snapshot was trending at a rating of 84, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

Multiple packages arrived in snapshot 20190907, which was also trending at a rating of 84. An update of ImageMagick 7.0.8.63 properly identifies the DNG and AI image format. About 15 CVE’s were addressed in the update of Mozilla Firefox to version 68.1.0, which included a fix for type confusion in Mozilla’s JavaScript engine Spidermonkey. An update for the Wayland input-method protocol was made in ibus 1.5.21 and improved Single Instruction, Multiple Data (SIMD) decoding of 24 bit files was made with the Free Lossless Audio Codec (flac) 1.3.3 package update. Improved performance of various Application Program Interface (API) such as JSON.parse and methods called on frozen arrays were made with the nodejs12 12.10.0 update and php7 7.3.9 provided a bug fixing release that fixed an Exchangeable image file format (Exif) crash (bus error) due to wrong alignment and invalid cast. Many other libraries were updated in the snapshot including a couple YaST packages.

More than half a dozen packages were updated in the 20190905 snapshot. Among the most notable packages in the snapshot were kdevelop5 5.4.2 and iproute2 5.2, which Use FAT link-time optimization (LTO) objects in order to provide proper static library. The mozilla-nss 3.45 added support for the Elbrus lcc compiler in the snapshot and both postgresql10 10.10 and postgresql11 11.5 were updated. The snapshot recorded a moderately stable rating of 83, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

The snapshot that started off the week, 20190904, provided an update to libktorrent 2.1.1 that fixed HTTP seeding and libgnome-games-support 1.4.4, libusb-1_0 1.0.23, webkit2gtk3 2.24.4 and yast2 4.2.19 were all updated. The command line package manager zypper also updated in the snapshot to version 1.14.30, which dumps stack trace on broken pipe SIGPIPE. The snapshot recorded a stable rating of 93, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

Multiple YaST Packages, Major Versions of Gawk, Swig Update in Tumbleweed

Multiple YaST Packages, Major Versions of Gawk, Swig Update in Tumbleweed

Multiple YaST Packages, Major Versions of Gawk, Swig Update in Tumbleweed 10Three openSUSE Tumbleweed snapshots were released this week.

The snapshots brought two new major versions and two Linux Kernel updates.

Snapshot 20190902 brought the second Linux Kernel update for the week with an update of kernel 5.2.11; the new kernel brought several fixes for ASoC audio drivers. The snapshot also provided an updated version of Ceph to address a Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures.The IRC Client irssi 1.2.2 version fixed a crash and libreoffice 6.3.1.1 removed some patches. The updated libsolv 0.7.6 fixed repository priority handling for multiversion packages and the network discovery and security auditing utility nmap 7.80 resolved a compatibility issue with OpenSSL library configured with security level 2. Qt4 support was removed with the polkit-qt5-1 version 0.113.0. MicroOS integration tests and an added required cryptomount coding for EFI boot were added with core appliance builder python-kiwi 9.18.12. The interface compiler connecting programs written in C and C++ with scripting languages, Swig, received the 4.0 update in the snapshot; the new major version improves support for parsing C++11 and C++14 code and removes php5 support. Several YaST packages updated the name type X-SuSE-YaST-AutoInstResource. The snapshot is trending at a rating of 88, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

Snapshot 20190829 updated three packages. The three package updates were freeipmi 1.6.4, texlive-specs-m and texlive-specs-n. The snapshot recorded a moderate rating of 90, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.

Mesa 19.1.5 arrived in snapshot 20190828 and provided some bug fixes. Mozilla browser Firefox had a minor update to 68.0.2 and provided a fix that cut off some images that weren’t displaying on Google Maps as well as a fix for special characters there were being cut off from the end of the search terms. KDE music player amarok received an update to version 2.9.70 and re-added the gstreamer-plugins-ugly. The 3.7.3 version of ccache corrected the cache size on filesystems that use more or less disk blocks than conventional filesystems. A compiler warning was fixed in e2fsprogs 1.45.3. A major version release of gawk 5.0.1 was in the snapshot; the pattern searcher makes some stronger assumptions about a C99 environment and adds support for the POSIX standard %a and %A printf formats. There was an update for GNU Compiler Collection from 9.1.1 to 9.2.1 and a patch was added to make symbols for aggregated global constructor names stable when using Link Time Optimization (LTO). Improvements to User Interface, workflow and features were made with the update of git 2.23.0. This snapshot provided the first kernel update of the week with kernel 5.2.10. Several translations were made with the libstorage-ng 4.2.2 update and text editor nano 4.4 made a change on startup to allow the cursor to be put on the first or last occurrence of a string by preceding the filename with +/string or +?string. The welcome window for openSUSE received more translations for global users with an update of the opensuse-welcome 0.1.6 package and several YaST packages were updated for the handling multiple versions of Ruby versions by updating tags in the spec file. The snapshot recorded a moderate rating of 81, according to the Tumbleweed snapshot reviewer.