Category: CSS Tricks

Bounce Element Around Viewport in CSS

Let’s say you were gonna bounce an element all around a screen, sorta like an old school screensaver or Pong or something.

You’d probably be tracking the X location of the element, increasing or decreasing it in a time loop and — when the element reached the maximum or minimum value — it would reverse direction. Then do that same thing with the Y location and you’ve got the effect we’re after. Simple enough with some JavaScript and math.

Here’s The Coding Train explaining it clearly:

Here’s a canvas implementation. It’s Pong so it factors in paddles and is slightly more complicated, but the basic math is still there:

See the Pen
Pong
by Joseph Gutierrez (@DerBaumeister)
on CodePen.

But what if we wanted to do this purely in CSS? We could write @keyframes that move the transform or left/top properties… but what values would we use? If we’re trying to bounce around the entire screen (viewport), we’d need to know the dimensions of the screen and then use those values. But we never know that exact size in CSS.

Or do we?

CSS has viewport units, which are based on the size of the entire viewport. Plus, we’ve got calc() and we presumably know the size of our own element.

That’s the clever root of Scott Kellum’s demo:

See the Pen
Codepen screensaver
by Scott Kellum (@scottkellum)
on CodePen.

The extra tricky part is breaking the X animation and the Y animation apart into two separate animations (one on a parent and one on a child) so that, when the direction reverses, it can happen independently and it looks more screensaver-like.

:root {
  --width: 300px;
  --x-speed: 13s;
  --y-speed: 7s;
  --transition-speed: 2.2s;
}

.el { 
  width: var(--width);
  height: var(--width);
}

.x {
  animation: x var(--x-speed) linear infinite alternate;
}
.y {
  animation: y var(--y-speed) linear infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes x {
  100% {
    transform: translateX(calc(100vw - var(--width)));
  }
}
@keyframes y {
  100% {
    transform: translateY(calc(100vh - var(--width)));
  }
}

I stole that idea, and added some blobbiness and an extra element for this little demo:

See the Pen
Morphing Blogs with `border-radius`
by Chris Coyier (@chriscoyier)
on CodePen.

The post Bounce Element Around Viewport in CSS appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

Bounce Element Around Viewport in CSS

Let’s say you were gonna bounce an element all around a screen, sorta like an old school screensaver or Pong or something.

You’d probably be tracking the X location of the element, increasing or decreasing it in a time loop and — when the element reached the maximum or minimum value — it would reverse direction. Then do that same thing with the Y location and you’ve got the effect we’re after. Simple enough with some JavaScript and math.

Here’s The Coding Train explaining it clearly:

Here’s a canvas implementation. It’s Pong so it factors in paddles and is slightly more complicated, but the basic math is still there:

See the Pen
Pong
by Joseph Gutierrez (@DerBaumeister)
on CodePen.

But what if we wanted to do this purely in CSS? We could write @keyframes that move the transform or left/top properties… but what values would we use? If we’re trying to bounce around the entire screen (viewport), we’d need to know the dimensions of the screen and then use those values. But we never know that exact size in CSS.

Or do we?

CSS has viewport units, which are based on the size of the entire viewport. Plus, we’ve got calc() and we presumably know the size of our own element.

That’s the clever root of Scott Kellum’s demo:

See the Pen
Codepen screensaver
by Scott Kellum (@scottkellum)
on CodePen.

The extra tricky part is breaking the X animation and the Y animation apart into two separate animations (one on a parent and one on a child) so that, when the direction reverses, it can happen independently and it looks more screensaver-like.

:root {
  --width: 300px;
  --x-speed: 13s;
  --y-speed: 7s;
  --transition-speed: 2.2s;
}

.el { 
  width: var(--width);
  height: var(--width);
}

.x {
  animation: x var(--x-speed) linear infinite alternate;
}
.y {
  animation: y var(--y-speed) linear infinite alternate;
}

@keyframes x {
  100% {
    transform: translateX(calc(100vw - var(--width)));
  }
}
@keyframes y {
  100% {
    transform: translateY(calc(100vh - var(--width)));
  }
}

I stole that idea, and added some blobbiness and an extra element for this little demo:

See the Pen
Morphing Blogs with `border-radius`
by Chris Coyier (@chriscoyier)
on CodePen.

The post Bounce Element Around Viewport in CSS appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

Can you view print stylesheets applied directly in the browser?

Can you view print stylesheets applied directly in the browser?

Yep.

Let’s take a look at how to do it in different browsers. Although note the date of this blog post. This stuff tends to change over time, so if anything here is wrong, let us know and we can update it.

In Firefox…

It’s a little button in DevTools. So easy!

  1. Open DevTools (Command+Option+i)
  2. Go to the “Inspector” tab
  3. Click the little page icon
Can you view print stylesheets applied directly in the browser? 1

In Chrome and Edge…

It’s a little weirder, I think, but it’s still a fairly easy thing to do in DevTools.

  • Open DevTools (Command+Option+i)
  • If you don’t have the weird-special-bottom-area-thing, press the Escape key
  • Click the menu icon to choose tabs to open
  • Select the “Rendering” tab
  • Scroll to bottom of the “Rendering” tab options
  • Choose print from the options for Emulate CSS media
Can you view print stylesheets applied directly in the browser? 2

In Safari…

Safari has a little button a lot like Firefox, but it looks different.

  1. Open DevTools (Command+Option+i)
  2. Go to the “Inspector” tab
  3. Click the little page icon
Can you view print stylesheets applied directly in the browser? 3

The post Can you view print stylesheets applied directly in the browser? appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

Draggin’ and Droppin’ in React

Draggin’ and Droppin’ in React

The React ecosystem offers us a lot of libraries that all are focused on the interaction of drag and drop. We have react-dnd, react-beautiful-dnd, react-drag-n-drop and many more, but some of them require quite a lot of work to build even a simple drag and drop demo, and some do not provide you with more complex functionality (e.g. multiple drag and drop instances), and if they do, it becomes very complex.

This is where react-sortable-hoc comes into play.

💡 This tutorial requires basic knowledge of React library and React hooks.

This library has “HOC” in its name for a good reason. It provides higher-order components that extends a component with drag and drop functionality.

Let’s walk through an implementation of its functionalities.

Spinning up a project

For this tutorial we are going to build an app with funny GIFs that can be dragged around the viewport.

GitHub Repo

Let’s create a simple app and add drag-n-drop functionality to it. We’re going to use create-react-app to spin up a new React project:

npx create-react-app your-project-name

Now let’s change to the project directory and install react-sorting-hoc and array-move. The latter is needed to move items in an array to different positions.

cd your-project-name
yarn add react-sortable-hoc array-move

Adding styles, data and GIF component

For simplicity’s sake, we are going to write all styles in our App.css file. You can overwrite styles you have there with the following ones:

.App {
  background: #1a1919;
  color: #fff;
  min-height: 100vh;
  padding: 25px;
  text-align: center;
}

.App h1 {
  font-size: 52px;
  margin: 0;
}

.App h2 {
  color: #f6c945;
  text-transform: uppercase;
}

.App img {
  cursor: grab;
  height: 180px;
  width: 240px;
}

Let’s create our state with GIFs. For this purpose we gonna use React’s built-in useState hook:

import React, { useState } from 'react';

Now add following before the return statement:

const [gifs, setGifs] = useState([
  'https://media.giphy.com/media/3ohhwoWSCtJzznXbuo/giphy.gif',
  'https://media.giphy.com/media/l46CbZ7KWEhN1oci4/giphy.gif',
  'https://media.giphy.com/media/3ohzgD1wRxpvpkDCSI/giphy.gif',
  'https://media.giphy.com/media/xT1XGYy9NPhWRPp4pq/giphy.gif',
]);

It’s time to create our simple GIF component. Create a Gif.js file in the src directory and pass in the following code:

import React from 'react';
import PropTypes from 'prop-types';

const Gif = ({ gif }) => (gif)

Gif.propTypes = {
  gif: PropTypes.string.isRequired,
};

export default Gif;

We always try to follow the best practices while writing code; thus we also import PropTypes for type checking.

Import the Gif component and add it to the main App component. With a bit of clean up, it looks like this:

import React, { useState } from 'react';
import './App.css';

import Gif from './Gif';

const App = () => {
  const [gifs, setGifs] = useState([
    'https://media.giphy.com/media/3ohhwoWSCtJzznXbuo/giphy.gif',
    'https://media.giphy.com/media/l46CbZ7KWEhN1oci4/giphy.gif',
    'https://media.giphy.com/media/3ohzgD1wRxpvpkDCSI/giphy.gif',
    'https://media.giphy.com/media/xT1XGYy9NPhWRPp4pq/giphy.gif',
  ]);


  return (
    

Drag those GIFs around

Set 1

{gifs.map((gif, i) => )}
); } export default App;

Go to http://localhost:3000/ to see what the app looks like now:

A screenshot of react-sortable-hoc-article-app

Onto the drag-n-drop stuff

Alright, it’s time make our GIFs draggable! And droppable.

To start, we need two HOCs from react-sortable-hoc, and the >arrayMove method from the array-move library to modify our new array after dragging happens. We want our GIFs to stay on their new positions, right? Well, that’s what this is going to allow us to do.

Let’s import them:

import { sortableContainer, sortableElement } from 'react-sortable-hoc';
import arrayMove from 'array-move';

As you might have guessed, those components will be wrappers which will expose functionality needed for us.

  • sortableContainer is a container for our sortable elements.
  • sortableElement is a container for each single element we are rendering.

Let’s do the following after all our imports:

const SortableGifsContainer = sortableContainer(({ children }) => 
{children}
); const SortableGif = sortableElement(({ gif }) => );

We’ve just created a container for our children elements that would be passed inside our SortableGifsContainer and also created wrapper for a single Gif component.
If it’s a bit unclear to you, no worries — you will understand right after we implement it.

💡Note: You need to wrap your children in a div or any other valid HTML element.

It’s time to wrap our GIFs into the SortableGifsContainer and replace the Gif component with our newly created SortableGif:


  {gifs.map((gif, i) =>
    
  )}

It’s important to note that you need to pass the index prop to your sortable element so the library can differentiate items. It’s similar to adding keys to the lists in React).

We add axis because our items are positioned horizontally and we want to drag them horizontally, while default is vertical dragging. In other words, we’re limiting dragging along the horizontal x-axis. As you can see we also add an onSortEnd function, which triggers every time we drag or sort our items around. There are, of course, a lot more events but you can find more info in the documentation which already does an excellent job of covering them.

Time to implement it! Add the following line above the return statement:

const onSortEnd = ({ oldIndex, newIndex }) => setGifs(arrayMove(gifs, oldIndex, newIndex));

I want to explain one more thing: our function received an old and new index of the item which was dragged and, of course, each time after we move items around we modify our initial array with the help of arrayMove.

Tada! Now you know how to implement drag-n-drop in your project. Now go and do it! 🎉 🎉 🎉

Draggin’ and Droppin’ in React 4

What if we have multiple lists of items?

As you can see, the previous example was relatively simple. You basically wrap each of the items in a sortable HOC and wrap it around with sortableContainer and, bingo, you’ve got basic drag and drop.

But how will we do it with multiple lists? The good news is that react-sortable-hoc provides us with a collection prop so we can differentiate between lists.

First, we should add second array of GIFs:

const [newGifs, setNewGifs] = useState([
  'https://media.giphy.com/media/xiOgHgY2ceKhm46cAj/giphy.gif',
  'https://media.giphy.com/media/3oKIPuMqYfRsyJTWfu/giphy.gif',
  'https://media.giphy.com/media/4ZgLPakqTajjVFOVqw/giphy.gif',
  'https://media.giphy.com/media/3o7btXIelzs8nBnznG/giphy.gif',
]);

If you want to see them before we move next, add the following lines after the SortableGifsContainer closing tag:

{newGifs.map(gif => )}

Alright, time to replace it with a draggable version.

Implementation is the same as in first example besides one thing — we have added a collection prop to our SortableGif. Of course, you can come up with any name for the collection, just remember, we’re gonna need it in for our onSortEnd function.

Set 2

{newGifs.map((gif, i) => )}

Next we need to add the collection prop to our first list. I’ve chosen the name GIFs for the first list of items, but it’s up to you!

Now we need to to change our onSortEnd function. Our function received old and new indexes, but we can also destructure a collection from it. Right, exactly the one we’ve added to our SortableGif.

So all we have to do now is write a JavaScript switch statement to check for the collection name and to modify the right array of GIFs on drag.

const onSortEnd = ({ oldIndex, newIndex, collection }) => {
  switch(collection) {
    case 'gifs':
      setGifs(arrayMove(gifs, oldIndex, newIndex))
      break;
    case 'newGifs':
      setNewGifs(arrayMove(newGifs, oldIndex, newIndex))
      break;
    default:
      break;
  }
}

Time to check it out!

Draggin’ and Droppin’ in React 5

As you can see, we now have two separate lists of GIFs and we can drag and sort. Moreover, they are independent meaning items from different lists won’t be mixed up.

Exactly what we wanted to do! Now you know how to create and handle drag and drop with multiple lists of items. Congratulations 🎉

Hope you’ve enjoyed it as much as I did writing it! If you’d like to reference the complete code, it’s all up on GitHub here. If you have any questions, feel free to contact me via email.

The post Draggin’ and Droppin’ in React appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

Accessibility and web performance are not features, they’re the baseline

This week I’ve been brooding about web performance and accessibility. It all began when Ethan Marcotte made a lot of great notes about the accessibility issues that are common with AMP:

In the recordings above, I’m trying to navigate through the AMP Story. And as I do, VoiceOver describes a page that’s impossible to understand: the arrows to go back or forward are simply announced as “button”; most images are missing text equivalents, which is why the screen reader spells out each and every character of their filenames; and when a story’s content is visible on screen, it’s almost impossible to access. I’d like to say that this one AMP Story was an outlier, but each of the nine demos listed on the AMP Stories website sound just as incomprehensible in VoiceOver.

Ethan continues to argue that these issues are so common in AMP that accessibility must not be a priority at all:

Since the beginning, Google has insisted AMP is the best solution for the web’s performance problem. And Google’s used its market dominance to force publishers to adopt the framework, going so far as to suggest that AMP’s the only format you need to publish pages on the web. But we’ve reached a point where AMP may “solve” the web’s performance issues by supercharging the web’s accessibility problem, excluding even more people from accessing the content they deserve.

I’ve been thinking a lot about this lately — about how accessibility work is often seen as an additional feature that can be tacked onto a project later — rather than accessibility work being a core principle or standard of working on the web.

And I’ve seen this sentiment expressed time and time again, in the frameworks, on Twitter, in the design process, in the development process, and so much so that arguing about the importance of accessibility can get pretty exhausting. Because at some point we’re not arguing about the importance of accessibility but the importance of front-end development itself as a series of worthy skills to have. Skills that can’t be replaced.

Similarly, this post by Craig Mod, on why software should be lightning fast, had me thinking along the same lines:

I love fast software. That is, software speedy both in function and interface. Software with minimal to no lag between wanting to activate or manipulate something and the thing happening. Lightness.

Later in the piece, Mod describes fast software as being the very definition of good software and argues that every action on a computer — whether that’s a website or an app — should feel as if you’re moving without any latency whatsoever. And I couldn’t agree more; every loading screen and wait time is in some degree a mark of failure.

Alex Russell made a similar point not so long ago when he looked at the performance of mobile phones and examined how everyone experiences the web in a very different way:

The takeaway here is that you literally can’t afford desktop or iPhone levels of JS if you’re trying to make good web experiences for anyone but the world’s richest users, and that likely means re-evaluating your toolchain.

I’m sort of a jerk when it comes to this stuff. I don’t think a website can be good until it’s fast. The kind of fast that takes your breath away. As fast as human thought, or even faster. And so my point here is that web performance isn’t something we should aspire to, it should be the standard. The status quo. The baseline that our work is judged by. It ought to be un-shippable until the thing is fast.

The good news is that it’s easier than ever to ship a website with these base requirements of unparalleled speed and accessibility! We have Page Speed Insights, and Web Page Test, not to mention the ability to have Lighthouse perform audits with every commit in GitHub automatically as we work. Ire Aderinokun showed us how to do this not so long ago by setting up a performance budget and learning how to stick to it.

The tools to make our websites fast and accessible are here but we’re not using them. And that’s what makes me mad.


While I’m on this rant — and before I get off my particularly high horse — I think it’s important to make note of Deb Chachra’s argument that “any sufficiently advanced negligence is indistinguishable from malice.” With that in mind, it’s not just bad software design and development if a website is slow. Performance and accessibility aren’t features that can linger at the bottom of a Jira board to be considered later when it’s convenient.

Instead we must start to see inaccessible and slow websites for what they are: a form of cruelty. And if we want to build a web that is truly a World Wide Web, a place for all and everyone, a web that is accessible and fast for as many people as possible, and one that will outlive us all, then first we must make our websites something else altogether; we must make them kind.

The post Accessibility and web performance are not features, they’re the baseline appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

Weekly Platform News: HTML Loading Attribute, the Main ARIA Specifications, and Moving from iFrame to Shadow DOM

In this week’s roundup of platform news, Chrome introduces a new attribute for loading, accessibility specifications for web developers, and the BBC moves visualizations to the Shadow DOM.

Chrome ships the loading attribute

The HTML loading attribute for lazy-loading images and iframes is now supported in Chrome. You can add loading="lazy" to defer the loading of images and iframes that are below the viewport until the user scrolls near them.

Google suggests either treating this feature as a progressive enhancement or using it on top of your existing JavaScript-based lazy-loading solution.

This feature has not yet been added to the HTML Standard (but there is an open pull request), and multiple links to Google’s documentation are listed on its Chrome Status page.

(via web.dev)


Overview of ARIA specifications

The main accessibility specifications for web developers:

Name Description
ARIA in HTML Defines which ARIA role, state, and property attributes are allowed on which HTML elements (the implicit ARIA semantics are defined here)
Using ARIA Provides practical advice on how to use ARIA in HTML, with an emphasis on dynamic content and advanced UI controls (the “five rules of ARIA use” are defined here)
ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) Defines the ARIA roles, states, and properties
ARIA Authoring Practices Provides general guidelines on how to use ARIA to create accessible apps (includes ARIA implementation patterns for common widgets)
HTML Accessibility API Mappings Defines how browsers map HTML elements and attributes to the operating system’s accessibility APIs
WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines) Provides guidelines for making web content more accessible (success criteria for WCAG conformance are defined here)

Related: “Contributing to the ARIA Authoring Practices Guide” by Simon Pieters and Valerie Young


Shadow DOM on the BBC website

The BBC has moved from

Direct Link to ArticlePermalink

The post Front Conference in Zürich appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

Staggered CSS Transitions

Let’s say you wanted to move an element on :hover for a fun visual effect.

@media (hover: hover) {
  .list--item {
    transition: 0.1s;
    transform: translateY(10px);
  }
  .list--item:hover,
  .list--item:focus {
    transform: translateY(0);
  }
}

Cool cool. But what if you had several list items, and you wanted them all to move on hover, but each one offset with staggered timing?

The trick lies within transition-delay and applying a slightly different delay to each item. Let’s select each list item individually and apply different delays. In this case, we’ll select an internal span just for fun.

@media (hover: hover) {
  .list li a span {
    transform: translateY(100px);
    transition: 0.2s;
  }
  .list:hover span {
    transform: translateY(0);
  }
  .list li:nth-child(1) span {
    transition-delay: 0.0s;
  }
  .list li:nth-child(2) span {
    transition-delay: 0.05s;
  }
  .list li:nth-child(3) span {
    transition-delay: 0.1s;
  }
  .list li:nth-child(4) span {
    transition-delay: 0.15s;
  }
  .list li:nth-child(5) span {
    transition-delay: 0.2s;
  }
  .list li:nth-child(6) span {
    transition-delay: 0.25s;
  }
}

See the Pen
Staggered Animations
by Chris Coyier (@chriscoyier)
on CodePen.

If you wanted to give yourself a little more programmatic control, you could set the delay as a CSS custom property:

@media (hover: hover) {
  .list {
    --delay: 0.05s;
  }
  .list li a span {
    transform: translateY(100px);
    transition: 0.2s;
  }
  .list:hover span {
    transform: translateY(0);
  }
  .list li:nth-child(1) span {
    transition-delay: calc(var(--delay) * 0);
  }
  .list li:nth-child(2) span {
    transition-delay: calc(var(--delay) * 1);
  }
  .list li:nth-child(3) span {
    transition-delay: calc(var(--delay) * 2);
  }
  .list li:nth-child(4) span {
    transition-delay: calc(var(--delay) * 3);
  }
  .list li:nth-child(5) span {
    transition-delay: calc(var(--delay) * 4);
  }
  .list li:nth-child(6) span {
    transition-delay: calc(var(--delay) * 5);
  }
}

This might be a little finicky for your taste. Say your lists starts to grow, perhaps to seven or more items. The staggering suddenly isn’t working on the new ones because this doesn’t account for that many list items.

You could pass in the delay from the HTML if you wanted:

@media (hover: hover) {
  .list li a span {
    transform: translateY(100px);
    transition: 0.2s;
  }
  .list:hover span {
    transform: translateY(0);
    transition-delay: var(--delay); /* comes from HTML */
  }
}

Or if you’re Sass-inclined, you could create a loop with more items than you need at the moment (knowing the extra code will gzip away pretty efficiently):

@media (hover: hover) {
 
 /* base hover styles from above */

  @for $i from 0 through 20 {
    .list li:nth-child(#{$i + 1}) span {
      transition-delay: 0.05s * $i;
    }
  }
}

That might be useful whether or not you choose to loop for more than you need.

The post Staggered CSS Transitions appeared first on CSS-Tricks.

Staggered CSS Transitions

Let’s say you wanted to move an element on :hover for a fun visual effect.

@media (hover: hover) {
  .list--item {
    transition: 0.1s;
    transform: translateY(10px);
  }
  .list--item:hover,
  .list--item:focus {
    transform: translateY(0);
  }
}

Cool cool. But what if you had several list items, and you wanted them all to move on hover, but each one offset with staggered timing?

The trick lies within transition-delay and applying a slightly different delay to each item. Let’s select each list item individually and apply different delays. In this case, we’ll select an internal span just for fun.

@media (hover: hover) {
  .list li a span {
    transform: translateY(100px);
    transition: 0.2s;
  }
  .list:hover span {
    transform: translateY(0);
  }
  .list li:nth-child(1) span {
    transition-delay: 0.0s;
  }
  .list li:nth-child(2) span {
    transition-delay: 0.05s;
  }
  .list li:nth-child(3) span {
    transition-delay: 0.1s;
  }
  .list li:nth-child(4) span {
    transition-delay: 0.15s;
  }
  .list li:nth-child(5) span {
    transition-delay: 0.2s;
  }
  .list li:nth-child(6) span {
    transition-delay: 0.25s;
  }
}

See the Pen
Staggered Animations
by Chris Coyier (@chriscoyier)
on CodePen.

If you wanted to give yourself a little more programmatic control, you could set the delay as a CSS custom property:

@media (hover: hover) {
  .list {
    --delay: 0.05s;
  }
  .list li a span {
    transform: translateY(100px);
    transition: 0.2s;
  }
  .list:hover span {
    transform: translateY(0);
  }
  .list li:nth-child(1) span {
    transition-delay: calc(var(--delay) * 0);
  }
  .list li:nth-child(2) span {
    transition-delay: calc(var(--delay) * 1);
  }
  .list li:nth-child(3) span {
    transition-delay: calc(var(--delay) * 2);
  }
  .list li:nth-child(4) span {
    transition-delay: calc(var(--delay) * 3);
  }
  .list li:nth-child(5) span {
    transition-delay: calc(var(--delay) * 4);
  }
  .list li:nth-child(6) span {
    transition-delay: calc(var(--delay) * 5);
  }
}

This might be a little finicky for your taste. Say your lists starts to grow, perhaps to seven or more items. The staggering suddenly isn’t working on the new ones because this doesn’t account for that many list items.

You could pass in the delay from the HTML if you wanted:

@media (hover: hover) {
  .list li a span {
    transform: translateY(100px);
    transition: 0.2s;
  }
  .list:hover span {
    transform: translateY(0);
    transition-delay: var(--delay); /* comes from HTML */
  }
}

Or if you’re Sass-inclined, you could create a loop with more items than you need at the moment (knowing the extra code will gzip away pretty efficiently):

@media (hover: hover) {
 
 /* base hover styles from above */

  @for $i from 0 through 20 {
    .list li:nth-child(#{$i + 1}) span {
      transition-delay: 0.05s * $i;
    }
  }
}

That might be useful whether or not you choose to loop for more than you need.

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